Eurasia Center Brief Analysis EC/2022/14. – Energy security and related issues in Central Asia


After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Central Asian countries faced a number of political and economic problems. One of the most important such problems was establishing the independence of the energy sector within the independent states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), as well as the future of energy policy in Central Asian countries. The economic crises of the 2000s, population growth, increased energy demand in the winter months, and growing farm energy supplies all contributed to the regular seasonal power outages experienced throughout the region. Initially, the main obstacle to the expansion of energy-related cooperation among Central Asian countries was the geographical distance between them. Despite these difficulties, the countries of the region pursued policies aimed at attracting foreign investment in energy development. However, the sheer distance from the European hydrocarbon market made oil and gas pipeline projects to the west of Central Asia impractical. As a result, the energy policy of Central Asian countries was mainly defined by cooperation with China and Russia.

This analysis focuses primarily on the energy security of the Central Asian countries, while providing insight into the energy policy of the local countries, as well as presenting a brief overview of the energy mix of the countries in question.

Keywords: Central Asia, energy policy, energy security

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