The referendum on constitutional reform implemented in Kazakhstan was called several months after the unrest earlier in the year. The demonstrations in early January – which began as a peaceful protest against fuel price increases – quickly reached Almaty, Kazakhstan’s largest city, and quickly turned into mass demonstrations against the economic and political situation in Kazakhstan. And the situation quickly spiraled out of the government’s control, leading to severe street violence and armed clashes between the demonstrators and Kazakh government security forces. As a result of the Kazakh armed forces’ crackdown, 232 people lost their lives (both civilians and police officers). The situation prompted President Tokayev to request the intervention of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, demonstrations, constitutional reform
The full text available at here: